Articles

An Introduction to the Roman Navy – Michael Page

July 25, 2019



[Applause] thank you very much done it's my great pleasure to be here today to talk to you about the Roman Navy and how it in my opinion and serving several other scholars gained a naval a tendency after the First Punic War I had firstly an omission to make an apology I am a military military history student I'm not a student of a very Latin so if I provide some amusement to some of you in my speaking of some of the lack in terms it sort of please take that on board my second comment I would like to make is that I'm an infantry officer some 32 years and so you may well ask why am I talking about Navy it's a reasonable question having said that I spent my last two postings at the Army Command and Staff College in western creaking camera which is infected Christ service organization in Navy Air Force and luckily the Romans didn't invent the air force that was to come some years later so and during that time I get I was very interested in campaign planning did some instruction and some assessment on operational in campaign planning in what we call the littoral environment between that you know where the sea meets the the land and and how you secure allies and communications getting ashore in for example normally in some of the land battles requires a lot of supporting coordination from the Navy and that square a lot of my interest came from and of course that culminated when I came back to www.a and studied the Roman army and I found there wasn't much information about the Roman Navy and most people talking about the legions and the battles that they fought and so I was naturally drawn to some of the the issues about how they secured their lines of communications surprised the troops and transported them and in fact gained naval supremacy which I think they did quite successfully to become the first superpower of the ancient world I've got two presentations one an introduction of the Roman Navy and the second part after after some sustenance and afternoon tea we'll look at the three battles of the First Punic War which resulted in Rome gaining naval ascendancy I am happy to take questions both after we to the literature presentations but also during afternoon tea I should say the scope of the presentation is sort of run through Sandro Roman warships some of the weapons and tactics the crew a little bit on their organization and we'll touch briefly on the archaeological record mainly so that those that have an interest I wish to you know develop you know study a little bit further can do so also there will be some places where you can visit when you're doing your European trips you know there'll be a few places you can pop in and look for those of those links to the Roman Navy because there's a reasonable amount of your source information out there and I'll be happy to take questions at the end roman typical Roman warship that you will see in many of the literature and certainly films this in fact comes from one of the surprise of a number of model ships which are available which we have a couple here today to show you hold on so please take the opportunity again during afternoon sea or the break to come down and have a look at them trying to avoid picking them up too much because I've broken a couple of the 120 order horse and my fingers are fairly nimble so but you know please feel free to have a look maybe worships a couple of comments they haven't changed in some 400 years that were made out of obviously the lighter woods they were use a technique called a mortise technique where the planks were rather than linked over where effect aligned dead on top of one another and they had a mortise cut into it where a piece of wood was fitted between the two planks and then they it was drilled and a wooden barrel was placed between the two which then will meet the planks and held them in together so a lot of skill involved in shaping these planks so that they feed you know reasonably perfectly together in the shape of the designated ship now again we build them an 8 to 1 ratio that's the bridge the length some were shorter etc and the maximum effective ratio was about 10 to 1 for a long and thin ship and that was to facilitate the speed obviously like arrows was the thinner the width or the back of the ship and enable terms it's called the beam compared to the length would allow it to cut through the water reducing the resistance of the water itself they're made out of like timber was fairly common in the river region the pine Elm and spruce and they were shaped so that they were they were fairly shallow in their draft so the depth of the hole was fairly shallow unlike a lot of you know later ships and more more parents and temporary shipping the main problem with that it was there they did have poor sea keeping qualities because the round the hull it was advantageous for going on to Shores and beating which I will explain fairly shortly but they down yesterday but also during it would what they would would enable they would call rolled the ships would tend to roll in seas and make them relatively unstable that was to have a significant impact on some of the longer sea voyages later as we as we will see again we had a large as in the model in front of you I've seen the last sail and a smaller one on the on the forward the forward edge of the ship the mainsail was simply read it just would be rigged to either go up and down and was secured by this weather yeaa crew the ship and obviously in favorable winds it would then propel the ship at somewhere between two and a half to four knots which isn't very fast but it was a lot better than worrying in an unfavorable wind you would only do one to one and a half knots which isn't faster than walking well as most of us can't walk on water so it was better than wearing I'm talking about rowing generally somewhere between about four and six knots was what they could achieve on a leisurely cruise in the Mediterranean not so much in battle of course walls were the primary means of propulsion they had multiple banks and you'll see them from single rows a single bank through two three and in some of the earlier takes you'll find them talking about sixes and sevens and even the tens excuse me a minute I'll explain in a few more slides what that in the main creature of four or five sixes in Tinsman some of the early scholars interpreted that to be ten banks and rows of oars or dipping and if you can visualize these are simply three rows Meghan King Rosa Wars vertically on a ship as far as the ship would have to be enormous Lehigh and would almost certainly roll over but the practical limitations of rowing if any of you have ever rode a a skull on a tour for your local school or something like that or even seen the head of the river you'll understand how much coordination not to mention some of the physics of how long the wars would have to be if you were in a yeah six high or tinayoung ship so I'll explain what the four is implies were meant so that if you do some reading you'll find that you that'll be a little bit clearer the speed most of these boats would do four or five knots which is comfortable cruising speed and certainly the ones with multiple horsemen would rest there alternating their crewmen and if you've had a look at being familiar with the Mediterranean map which most of you I'm sure are you'll see there's some of those distances from Alexandria to Rome would take a number of days at four or five knots which is a nautical mile is about 2,000 meters or so so you'd be looking at quite a long journey you know just doing it by also you didn't need to develop a fairly good rowing speed to achieve four or five company out and we'll talk about what they did them by day night battle speed was seven to nine knots in some cases that intent of ten knots have been achieved but a the Olympus which I'll show you later which was a modern reconstruction with physically fit uni students and some some military people were in 1982 I think it was some a program was made and they achieved nine knots in fairly Pleasant weather so it was Center nine not some would be achieved in you in when it came to a battle now the chips are generally this beached at night that was because some being off firm pine rather than open some of the heavier woods they tended to absorb water quite quickly and then once they absorb water they become heavier and sluggish in the water and so that would reduce the speed and make it harder work for the rowers and as a consequence they would rather try and Beach them pull them up on in ports so that they could then dry out overnight so they didn't accumulate extra heavy heavy weight which is why when you look at the Mediterranean there's a lot of little coastal ports even from entry good days of antiquity often you'll find major ports are often a day's sailing or rowing I should say from the major ports where they were then rest overnight the cruise could recover and then they start the journey next the next day they slip to dry out over the winter months sailing was a fair weather activity Neptune and the other gods and the weather gods would intervene very quickly and these ships were not sir particularly seaworthy so there were more ships lost due to storms and interventions by those sea gods and there were ever from actual naval combat coastal engagements were very common and coastal engagements by day very little night engagement was made personally most the ships were pulled to shore and secondly you know the sea at night they didn't have the lighthouses or the lights or or the technology to avoid no GPS is it set up to avoid you know the rocks and the reefs and etc at night so while coastal engagements by day was generally the norm and most of the ancient naval battles were effected by day give you some idea about ship sizes the smaller warships were built by burners somewhere between 10 and 15 tons their length was about 20 to 25 meters their speed and as you find most displaces seven to nine knots and then roughly about 50 rowers sometimes Marines and their general tests were reconnaissance transport light attack which means attacking individual transports that they found or other smaller light ships and freight communications not by radio or telegraph will flag but generally by you know moving to a flagship gaining a getting a and also and then moving them off to them at the next squadron commander etcetera so they would move people around to one of the other final things is they're off to an excellent able battle or even during a battle rescue where they would go and try and rescue their sailors and their commanders try rings which are the most common ship of most people generally throwing me means that it's got three banks of rows operated by a single auslan weight was up to 45 tons forty-year meters in length and again a speed of 9 to 10 knots with a well-trained crew they could manage to do that for up to 20 minutes or so hundred and seventy-six rowers and often a crew Marines of about 30 odd Marines and their their primary aim was to defend the ship and also at the same time whether they were able to go and attack and capture other ships the tests were generally escort and again light attack the Quadra earrings they were starting to get fairly big ships 110 tons length about 45 meters speed simile 7 to 8 knots and 360 odd rowers so 180 rowers either side if you look around now you've got probably a hundred plus people here almost double this number of people in the side of one of these ships all clamped fairly close as you are in your sitting positions most of you have not taken off your shirts and worked hard for the last six hours rowing a ship it so you can imagine what that would be if I asked you all now to turn around and practice rowing for 30 or 50 minutes and then increase the tempo you'd find very quickly that it would become a fairly you would become fairly intimate with everyone within within the within a ship's environment so the warships were often quatre effect which was meant means that they were in close mainly to protect themselves from missile fire and arrows and as a consequence that reduces the ventilation it was very unpleasant being a sailor on one of these ships in battle alone with the threat of death and destruction were alone during the cruises to the islands getting back to the quadri rings their major tasks was with 360 young growers and the Marines of 140 or so their task was to escort transport and they formed the majority of the attack force within the fleet's of the Romans and the Carthaginians the Queen Queen rings were their big brothers not so much lean lean but why doing beam other than 30 tons against length was about 50 odd meters thanks Felix it's only like knots the rows have substantially increased that up to 800 rowers and these ships so you've got banks of these very long whores and they've got multiple they've got three people on each all on three dicks so they're fairly square shaped solid ships and they were able to mail to war engines carry a lot more troops which is why you've gotten the reigns of 1000 and their job was to basically transport troops in safety for invasions offloading them at ports and also capturing the larger ships of the enemy they're generally well the flagships transports are used in the attack weapons and tactics this is a common one that most people know about is ramming we'll talk about that hoarding that's all destruction missiles and the war machines war machines were generally fitted on cows or on the decks of off ships and we'll just very briefly talk about those ok the rim is where the rostrum they're generally made of bronze and there were about 90 to 120 centimetres long we know this from examples that have been recovered the weight was about 80 to 120 kilos of bronze that was cast the largest has been recovered it was a one-off private house of Israel was 600 kilos 600 kilos so that size of several smaller several large fridges in weight performer on the bow of these these the ship's they often had wings and I'll show you an example of what I mean by wings and the general test was to obviously punch holes below the waterline and split the holes of the of the opposing ships so that would would come in and then they were the ships would film generated in six to thirty minutes it was very hard to sink these ships why because they made a wood and wood float and these is like wood there's a Monty Python script is out of which about that but they're the ships were made of as I said first through Salman pieing and so we're fairly light but what would happen is that once they were filled with water they the undulations of the ways would tend to break them up and they were very hard to to recover you have to tow them and beat them and if they're full of if you try to move is from a kids swimming pool full of water try to move a hundred and ten tons of water out of a ship would be somewhat of a challenge the Rams themselves I'll show you a couple of pictures of them that's one that's being recovered and as you can see there's a there's a the Trident motif which was a fairly common and we'll have a look at this one this is a copy of a marble Ram in Ostia it's a reportedly of a size of M so you can see by comparison of a on the person but those wings the horizontal were elements that's these pieces here the owner of X and that and the central were cutting device which direction punch a hole and split Fatima's because as slow as you may remember thee the mortise timbers were aligned one on top of the other and although they had some framing to support them they strengthened their integrity was based on the mortise alignment and the strength of the Timbers laterally so as they were broken and cut they would come in to the center of the into the ship and and even if they were tended to bounce back there would be severed and tons of water would come in very very quickly I can only imagine the tower in there growing one because it would be a bit of a surprise to have one of these Rams selling quite a hole and if you are if you are uninjured and you know surviving the shot you can perhaps try and swim out etc and get away but of course some that would be somewhat problematic a ship as I said could feel very very quickly within six minutes so it didn't leave you a long time and as you'll see by some of the crewmen there were not they were fairly scantily plated for money for comfort but also I suspect – so that they could get out and move around in within the ship very very quickly and the whole point of as I said is once you've Rameau belies the ship it couldn't do any damage – then to you so that then you would normally would cool and then go after another ship etc a couple of other examples and in this case you can see how the sheath was it was formed over the very the bow of the or the prow of the worship and they protected the wood and again you can see the the the things that actually spread the damage this was found to be more effective rather than just a single cutting one because they're cutting one would only split the wood there rather than a whole block and several multiple planks this is the Olympius which is a contemporary introduction by the Greek Navy by a group of enthusiasts that actually was publicly funded and then this ship served in the Greek Navy for a short time it was primarily built to assess what a trying to do in ancient naval ships the main interest years as you can see how the RAM was fitted quite comfortably to the prow of the ship and just below the waterline and it was fitted with these breasts nails and an example of how it sits on the water this is a little higher than normal mainly because I suspect that the crews not on board on board now this was a bit of an art to get a design and border ship took a degree of skill that was achieved over you know hundreds and thousands of years frankly they were – to build a ship that would sit at the right height in the water because you didn't want to add extra ballast because if you put ballast in it too low water it would then be a lot heavier and harder to row and to move apart from ramming and in fact they used to them as well but the other way to destroy the mobility of the ship because once a ship was isolated in your mobile it was pretty much useless and vulnerable to other attacks was to destroy yours this was normally done by the ships actually maneuvering adjacent and running either from the foreign positions of the sternal from the stern back destroying the walls of the of your opponent's ships as you can imagine that would create horrific damage to not only the the oars but to the men that were actually mending them if you can imagine holding and all and have 110 tons of ship come along and hit the 50 or at best it would rip it out of your hands going forward and hit the next rivers always on the back of the head and whereas it would do the opposite and hit you and create a huge amount of damage to the crew and injure the crew the ship's did not have the capability of spear wars they might have had wanted to agree but not enough to do a whole side so once the oars were were lost the ship was in itself pretty much in mobile obviously there were some ability to if you had lost on one side to maybe pull something the other side to get some ability but as a warship and as an effective warship he ceased to be pretty much a threat to your opponent's and if you are then immobile you could not been avoid the subsequent rend that was likely to follow and so they're not uncommonly if this was this did happen ships would surrender to your opponents or so or destruction recorded a fair degree of seamanship to be able to maneuver ships because so obviously if the captain of your the the ship is about to be rammed would try and obviously avoid it unless he was too busy focused on trying to ram another ship and I can imagine the correct nature of where you've got some of our large battles we've got hundreds of these ships maneuvering in between while you're trying around one someone's running around you another ships moving close by and ripping and destroying your oars then you've got a problem and then you know then you become vulnerable and this this sort of chaotic nature would be what would the naval warfare from the at the ancients in those days it's an example again of the Olympus ports where they had the wars often they had lever select routes so that obviously water wouldn't come in because water inside of ship is not very practical and if they also allowed the out the oarsmen to push the oars out when the first man all where necessary to withdraw doors when they came in to port or you know in a case where they were going into battle and wanted to withdraw the port of the oars I suspect it's a jewel that they would have practiced them quite often because it would be one way of saving those walls if they were threatened a common feature of these ships of this era where the towers and turrets there's an example of one on here that would give a significant height advantage to the the ships and they often men by artists and slingers they provided that hide event so you could shoot and target the crew and the other Marines on your opponents they're often collapsible so that they could be assembled actually on board the ship because during the soil went sailing in bad weather you wouldn't want that top-heavy element especially if you had multiple towers because again that would make a ship unstable and in bad weather or inclement weather you had the risk of capsizing and often they certainly on the bigger ones they were then fitted with warnings like the list as it says in the example that we've got here this also used by by the crews including them javelins and artists and the main name of those we're to run into the crew where you could certainly other Marines on your opponent's ship and tag the steering they won the captain and the other sailors on board the ship the main aim was trying to mobilize it especially if they could attack the the people that were steering the ship the listeners they could fire heavy heavy bolts are going to damage the ship in the sea that in the fixing rate to 200 to 300 meters and somewhere related 50 would greatly halt so that they could draw your opponent ship together and then you could board them and attack them but also catapults which fire spiracle snowballs up to 27 kilo so following a catapult 200 meters with a stone shot of about 27 kilos it would make a mess of the deck and the ship if it hit you and obviously it could penetrate her the decking of some of the relationships as well however the technology of trying to hit a moving ship with a movie ship on an unstable would be a bit of a challenge and I'm not sure they the physics and the fire or the gun control in those days I think it was more of an opportunity and a number of catapults flying and it was more by luck than intent have you said that if you hadn't mobilized the ship it was a lot easier target and then you could standoff and actually then sink it and that was when you know some of the times they'd actually fire fire parts into a stationary ship in order that they could you know sink sink the ships examples of some blisters but the main main way that the Romans and indeed less so the Carthaginians captured and destroyed enemy ships was by boarding it was sort of the landlord bringing back to the naval war and that was by during the use of legionaries a marine Marines basically deck soldiers so the our main aim was to actually marry up with a bonus ship get on board and you know kill the crew after they've killed their deck soldiers etc some sometimes there were not any dick soldiers or Marines and as a consequence you would then be able to ruthlessly do with the crew which would be pretty much an armed they would be slight they would be trained to some level to defend themselves but when when a when 10 20 30 or 100 Legionnaires jumped on a on board a ship I suspect most the crew of the oarsmen and the sailors would be jumping overboard or getting out of there very quickly there's a number of recorded instances where ships have been rammed and before they could withdrawal the Marines would try and aboard the opposing ship to capture it because once you're being round you would then be immobilized so so that you know ramming ship was not necessarily guaranteed but you would sink it because some top floor pre-period you would be bound and tied together and it takes some time to backwash and get out of there before your opponent's could deal with you as well because she certainly didn't want to get trapped with a you know having damage to ram one ship be trapped and with that one as well threatening hooks and the use of the Corbis which we'll we'll talk very briefly about the cornice was an invention by the Romans that was used during the Carthaginian war and in fact was the probably the determining factor of their naval supremacy in the sense of winning early naval battles with the Corvis which was a boarding game plank and I so show you some pictures fundamentally it was about 11 meters long so meters wide and it would it was mounted on the far end of the ship and it had approached an enemy ship it would then crash down and the the beach the metal big male spike would embed itself in the top of the deck and then the troops would be trying to rush aboard kill the enemies Marines and capture the ship and the Jeanne's in particularly were very vulnerable to vex there was a bit of a surprise weapon and once you locked in very hard for you to then escape from them you actually have to physically lift this Korver's off which if you've got some 20 Marines on there would be somewhat of a challenge it weighed approximately 1 Tong so you were you're pretty much embedded and you have to fight that battle for survival and that's how the Romans put a lot of troops on their ships we were able to overtake and capture many many Carthaginian ships later on in the war they use the grappling hook fired from a ballista in order to do it in order to again grapple a ship drag it suit together and then they could then board and form the the battle this is a example of Corvus and I want to want you to hold this picture so that when we talk about later storms it's ever this is one ton of suspended any engineers and physics people will tell you very quickly or what one of the one of the biggest problems for this sort of equipment is it it makes this ship extremely unstable especially in bed whether in light weather like this this is fine but as you can see it's quite extensive it could reach out to a ship and grab it and then broaden and kept the Marines with the Marines and Legionnaire so did the rest of the job another example here pictorially represented and the one in the Far this one here as you can see the troops are now boarding into to capture that Carthaginian ship clearing the ships you recognize this one so a common misconception is that the crews were not slaves solium pirates and some of the smaller matey's and some of the smaller nations yes they were slaves but to motivate men to get into this sort of ship ship and fight wars you needed men that were free and wanted to do that well had no choice but there weren't slaves and of course you need them physically fit and well motivated because they had a better 30% they were the engine room of these warships the oarsmen and we'll just talk of those and as you can see I said scantily clad what you can imagine in the Mediterranean in the summer in that enclosed environment next to three other blokes you doing all work and the anticipation of battle all enclosed you would want to be drinking a lot of water don't push rims and all sorts of things I think to try and stay cool and I think it beats the Jenny Craig weight-loss program to the buried in ship as said somewhere between 50 to 1120 was not uncommon and as we seen from some of the early examples they were Jerry Friedman and soldiers not slaves and they're generally drawn from the lower ranks of Roman society but they were often not Romans the service was there 26 years and on completion of the 26 years you were being given Roman citizenship just as well as a Maasai like some of the Legionaries legions often after and they were substantial naval battle if you are ship on or crew or squadron had done exemplary work you could gain a number of years advantage off your service and in fact some of them were made citizens right after that maybe maybe as a motivator for other other ships and other cruisers wrong training it took skill and training to be in Walsman if you can imagine 120 people trying to keep in time and there were mechanisms to do that of course to keep in time in a variety of battling bio environment in a variety of sea state you've got to take a hats off to these guys that were able to do that I've been involved in my very very younger days in crewing a rowing scull on for the head of the river or once at one stage and just trying to get young men to actually coordinate was difficult let alone 120 and 240 on both sides of the ship all all in time etcetera so but they've been doing for for centuries so they had obviously developed techniques and ability to do that other cruise the very they had a captain obviously in charge of the ship the sailors involved were somewhere Sylas generally between 20 to 50 and they were responsible for looking after the ship and ship maintenance running the sails the anchors and and doing all that ship good ship stuff to keep the should be effective the drummer's the palace they would tap out a beach the Greeks in their only dungeons down the pipes they were much more musically inclined the Romans being a little more military are used to drummer and that would type out of tap out of tap out the beat and it was rhythmic as it had to be and there was a number of recorded songs fact one recently released where they would actually sing the song to help maintain the rhythm and the beat and also help release some of the board and my suspect as well and obviously the gun would increase – they had to achieve battle speed there are two rudders steering laws on either side of the ship and apparently from all so well bearish if it was never to me just to stay back just single men with the the rubbers and there was a small administrative staff not necessarily on board ship but often at the homeport to look after the administration of the ship you know purchasing spools repairs looking pay and all that sort of thing as well right those women as you can see about that picture and this is where this concept of fours and fives if you took a lateral slice authorship you have a a cross-section of the crew within each of those all brackets and that's where the three rules and price it's relatively self-explanatory so when you're reading your text in your history when you hear about a four or a five you'll see how that's actually determine and that'll give you some idea of the size of the ship so here we have a trireme typical one or like the Olympus and what you will see on some of the early action movies that's a simplest configuration you've got three verticals and three single men powering their so you've got basically nice both six men power of all in there the quad Berean has got four and there's a couple ways with you know stacking that you can obviously have 2 min for all but only have two oars and in this case you've got three yours each with the top day being a lot slightly wider and ability to have 2 min in that space because the whole aim is to get more also a horse now oil power within a section of a ship obviously if you've got too much ship and less willpower it's not going to go as fast as a good compact ship and you trying to get it as narrow as possible to reduce the drag and increase some the speed of the ship so this one here you have four mean which would be somewhat comfortable but there's a there's a function of physics here in which a bit of an issue if you are spending here if the sea is there and I'm the closest and on happens to be actual oarsmen my reaching piece and I grab my all and I pull and I can engage a certain amount of water in in that that method if I'm on this floor I've made incredibly long arms or to be the bigger taller men to actually apply the same so a bit because the Ark of the all we've prescribed the longer the further it is if we have to go farther so this body appears to be a bit of physics and you know and output you know a greater having forming on this thing all the physical the physics don't don't support that because the biological metrics ah that's what I said ah so what you you actually slip them to the back or forward depending upon your positioning and in fact some of the ship designs have inclined benches because that helped with the physics of lining up a ship so obviously no point in you cleaning up everyone the world if you yourself lose all your old so that was that drill that I was just Jesus it would be natural for them to have a drill where they would ship their walls and then the the helm within most port or starboard then you know skip off again to the other ship and then you have to that's the seamanship in the skill that was involved so you have to do that very very quickly because I suspect if you didn't do it quick enough you'd be you know about it very quickly and I guess you don't have to do it really close to the ship as well you can do it fairly you know outside it as well and that would you know create that bit of room for as well but if they were as efficient and saw that coming they could perhaps slip their oars as well but in that chaos that's happening if this this side is slipping it's off then the other sides are storing you know then the Shabbat you should move to the right as I said I can just imagine this whole complex of you know a hundred two hundred ships merging in see in open water and and it would just be chaos I would not like to loom there it's a ballooning service mostly and the green Queens which has got five which seems to be a fairly common size and seems to be the world balanced result of you know that progression of bigger and larger warships and they've got two two and one so when you hear about forwards and priors in your reading that's what that means the four or five just imagine those four five horsemen mixed soldiers Marines in Legion in or by the way how many people could can swim put up your hands I've got to say thank you that's good see I didn't want to embarrass someone that anyone came probably had no need don't write the sea of the water I pick soldiers and sailors most of them could not swim not clear doesn't in fact my recollection is until 1966 both the war Navy and the Royal Australian Navy you didn't have to swim to be in the Navy I have a problem with that but you know I would have thought the first thing I would do is going on turning ladies learned how to swim I mean I'm a Leo I'm optimistic so I know my ships not gonna sing but I would like to know so so but the problem with all of that is of course naturally am the page of these fish ships that were sunk were fairly high it was worth because if you remember the oarsmen what were they wearing a loincloth on that cushion not much else about if they could swim they could get at these guys the Legion is they're wearing 45 kilos of body armor its owner so if they do morning if they go in the war that they're going very very quick again I don't think the quick release steps were quite engaging they are all velcro there were tied leather at cellar so just think about that again that panic and if your ship is going over you fall overboard you'd want to win the battle wouldn't you generally equipped with Theoden Gladius and javelins pretty much standard and they're also axes and now as long as I'm employed on the ship's organization just very quickly operated in squadrons of team ships the commanders were drawn from the equestrian class there's some debate is whether squadrons were more but from what I have read in a number of others other scholars generally operated in squadrons of king weights were commanded by a prefect sometimes a consul they were normally established for specific missions annoyed so they were grouped together and drawn together by command and were given a specific task etcetera and they ultimately operated at a fixed undefended ports they were really roam the oceans looking for trouble with Sara they operated out of ports they were there for a specific mission and even battles that you will read about it so that they were generally ships were import and other ships were said to be seizing them what they would actually do is not necessarily sit outside the port waiting for them to come out but have enough direction town they would Beach in nearby ports or on the shore and suddenly once where other ships were trying to get in or get out they would mount their ships and thence allowed to meet them again as I said service was 26 years and recognition the Navy's the senior service in military circles in certainly in the early times the Navy was subservient to the army couple remember that's some of my lady colleagues the archeological read well how do we know all of this about the ships having known about you know the equipment and the size of the ships its ever yaki always red riffle gives us some idea there's to pick oh give you so I'll show you some pictures so just bear with me there's depictions of battles for example on the arch of orange in France the sculpture showing Rams and very the the bowels of ships those sculptures of soldiers and Marines on board ships engraved into in some of the reliefs released like legends : which tell the story and the in fact not only warships for transports I said will give us a lot of information about the size not necessarily the proportion because those are you'll see in one of the pictures the artists that they often do take a little bit of license text and coins there's an a quite a large domestic support of ships not only at this size but they were released to commemorate ur important naval events and so they embrace it with not only naval ships but also names of battles and things and obviously a lot of ticks themselves have passing comments about may least numbers of ships and that sort of thing depictions of ownership some realms from the tendrils of Isis and and others and we'll have a quick look at those sockets of their Actium monument the actual monument probably one of them major naval battles in Roman history the number of rams that were collected were fitted to a monument but that REM socket sockets were carved out of stone then the Rams were then placed on them and basically slid like the pairs of ships to make a big memorial to their to the event although the Rams have gone because they were bronzed and you know collectible and important metal the sockets are there as well that gives us a good size and there's some significantly large sockets there so that gives us some idea king of proportionality and extending obviously if you've got something at sixty kilos and this one's estimative is 110 it's logical but the ship needs to be bigger supported and wider etc and with other grams and we'll talk about that in a minute an excavated item quartz is a number of ports of antiquity that have now been excavated including some ships but the ports themselves have been excavated and the the base and the walls where the ships was secured have been you can measure them out and that gives you a clear idea of what size a lot of the ships were both in Carthage and grace and a number of other places that that's fairly important for us because again by the time you basically evaluate them it'll give you a fair idea or from the actual size because obviously that's where they were generally stored especially during the winter months just looking at some of this from this record as you can see here there's a Roman warship here it's got a prow somebody unless I said the license picture is taken with the size of the the crew in the the legions Legionnaires that's mainly said that you can see them in their equipment that tells us so low that the shark shape it's Ardis latticework I would tend to indicate that it's not a warship on battle duty where it's not being enclosed the latticework was actually very important because it opened up the the ship to allow breeze through which was pretty important especially on those long trips this is some examples of the relief of orange and you can clearly see that structure the Rams and the prowess of the the warships and it gives you again information on on you have quite a bit of detail about the shipping Isis temple of Pompeii again very clear if not somewhat scar lives of the troops on board and two sets of all the meds so it's probably a quadroon because of the width of it and a few more and again these are actually in base and but quite clearly you can see the bronze Rams and again the structure of the ships as well funeral reliefs were fairly common on sarcophagi said over especially for senior naval officers etcetera often had these carved into them and you can see in this case the tower there the Marines on top and as you see by the model they're pretty well exposed so pose a question there's no accommodation for a second or third class on these shoots so this is now a troop ship taking you from Rome to Alexandria so that you can fight in Egypt where are you sitting on the deck so you ended up I suspect you're not wearing your arm or annoy your gear that you're on your deck sitting down and stretching your legs and making your way all the way to Alexandria so life is the big soldier was I think probably relatively unpleasant and and when you look at or you know 120 or 240 Osman inside doing their work they're going to take respite I don't think the ablutions or the toilet area were probably very generous I think the stern of the ship was probably very busy for a little while the record arm you know they certainly got can containers of water barrels of water and wine were very and certainly some of the sunken ships with recovered were you know or where the the ships have been have been you know had bags of nuts and other food and that sort of things so but I think it was fairly and I think there would have been delighted to get to port a lot of the historical journeys when the you accountant look at some of the takes Wharf today trips they would that one on me by date reaches though itself and port to port to port so they evenings were spent getting relisting etcetera because I just functionally no ability to do that on board and this lessened for three four hundred years recently two thousand later in one of the battle that will just discuss afternoon tea a number of REMS have been recovered do we have any dentists here okay that's good when a telling dentists apparently he had purchased somewhat illegally one of these Remsen had headed outside his surgery the antiquities beliefs I think it was about 2002 or you know a little bit earlier obviously maliciously came initially I suspect that for some money they were released and he paid a sum to antiquities in the the REM was recovered what was the important though was that out of that where the location was found because apparently he had come from a some fishermen because that's often what was left of these the ships so far 11 grams have been recovered more in varying conditions so which is really good further the ship ologists if that's a word and again roman sculpture reflects the REMS as well this is some the olympus have you ever in greece on unix crucian holiday popping to for ice and have a look at this trireme and you'll get some feel for the exertion it's now um as a permanent exhibit because frankly it was too expensive for greece to maintain a ship like this would there's somewhere between 20 or 30 years in combat I think the only oldest trickled it's about 120 years a ship would last maybe because it's made of soft wood and you know so prone to the elements and damage and yes just one thing I didn't mention is with sail a ship would sail about four to six kilometres the 46 knots would sail up with a favorable wind do we have any questions yep yes and the battleship that they were actually all's so the vertical waters always placed and a well-balanced ship a single man could stand up and they'll be obviously do it in unison and there's one normally either side the lighter like burners only have a single or on the distinct systems what you don't want is to be roaring at 8 knots and having the wind blowing against you at 8 knots but that would work but normally in battle though you wouldn't have your sails down and you wouldn't go into bellicus that would remove your flexibility and your your maneuverability and also remove a significant amount of top top right and what's certainly one of the battles what was how Rome Rome were able to outmaneuver the Carthaginians because simply they had removed all their sail gear etc cause that would reduce it took like yep no no very very little difference not no and in fact most of the Roman Navy was copied from Carthaginian ships it was a fairly and they own their legacy in their heritage to the Greek Greek ships of 400 years ago before that yes no no transport ships were what they these warships are Jenna called the longboats the transport ships were called the fat boats or the round votes I think literally and they were designed to a lot broader and they were generally headsails some had some more sort of but they were generally just now they were there were a lot broader in and stuff so that they could carry and some of them quite reasonable weight etcetera in fact in those instances of those both being as war transports with horses on being told by the warships as their motive power yes it's so nice I'm sure there is and the metallurgist a study of those techniques would sort of be able to tell you but they were generally cast in fact one of those new realms that have just been recovered has actually got the fingerprint of the guy that made it so I think they used the lost wax method or something because apparently there's clearly a fingerprint of this guy and it's there so thousands of years ago he's left his mark yes I would a little yeah so I'm was fairly common so as I said that's why it was what weighed one ton and it was on a post release and you could swing it around and then just just crash to the if you mixed you that the haul it back up of course I guess but yeah it was quite a surprise yes all the time all the time yes yeah most of the Nabal bails and the ships are made of as I said like wood so the only things you do recover now is like at the Battle of Actium sites Rams and the the shot from the catapults yeah and breast nails bonds nails as well what yep okay the carthaginian and I'll cover that in a second but very quickly the Carthaginian is the superior seaman continued for the Roman I'm going to come to you and that's that's how those were shown to me and what's this thing on stupid Roman scum oh now I'm in trouble we'll regroup here

1 Comment

  • Reply Rob Bowes July 25, 2019 at 1:52 pm

    Great lecture! Thank you, Mr Page.

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